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Tips for Enhancing Cold-Weather Reliability

It is time to remind customers of the effect that cold weather will have on their vehicles and how to prevent potential problems. Below is a checklist of items for customers to use when preparing their vehicles for extreme conditions, whether they are running diesel or natural gas engines. These procedures, which range from cooling system maintenance to choosing the right fuel to selecting the right engine oil, will help your customers keep their vehicles running safely and reliably in cooler ambient temperatures.

Diesel Engines – Systems Effected

<50°F
(<10°C)
<32°F
(<0°C)
<15°F
(<-9°C)
<0°F
(<-18°C)
Coolant
Fuel
DEF
Air
Batteries
Oil

Your customers’ maintenance department should:

  • Verify that all coolant lines and connections are leak-free.
  • Use the proper coolant/antifreeze mixture (ethylene glycol concentration) for route conditions/temperatures. A 50/50 mixture of ethylene glycol and water lowers the freezing point down to about -34°F. When operating in temperatures colder than this, a 60/40 mixture will reduce the freezing point to about -64°F. Your customers should be sure to consult the owners manual that came with their vehicles. They also need to ensure that, after any maintenance event, proper filling procedures are followed, and that the cooling system is purged of any air to protect the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooler.
  • Add starting aids such as a coolant heater/intake manifold heater and/or oil heater wherever temperatures typically drop below 11°F (-12°C).
  • Use winterized diesel, or blend #1 and #2 fuels.
  • Add a fuel warmer to the fuel system.
  • Double-check Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) warming lines before temperatures drop.
  • Modify the air intake in extreme cold (-25°F and below) to a position adjacent to the exhaust manifold.
  • Check the cold-cranking capacity of the battery. Add a battery warmer in extremely cold conditions.
  • Customers with diesel-powered engines should switch to 5W-30 engine oil for normal winter conditions. When temperatures go below 5°F (-15°C), operators may need to consider switching from 15W-40 oil to a 10W-30 or lighter oil. They should consider switching to 0W-30 when encountering prolonged arctic cold conditions. The oil selected must meet Cummins CES 20081 specifications for diesel engines.
  • Use a dipstick oil heater to help maintain oil lubricity and improve the engine’s cold-starting capability.
  • Closely monitor and drain the water/fuel separator by opening the petcock valve and releasing any water that has accumulated in the fuel filter/separator. It is especially critical that operators perform this function when vehicles are running on biodiesel. Biodiesel suspends a higher amount of water than diesel fuel, has a different additive package and may require more frequent fuel filter changes than normal. For natural gas engines, customers should ensure that the fuel filter is checked/drained daily to prevent oil and/or heavy hydrocarbons from collecting in the filter.
  • In below-freezing conditions in which an engine typically idles for more than 15 minutes, adjust the “Fast Idle” setting to 1000 rpm to 1200 rpm. A normal idle setting of 700 rpm to 800 rpm may not provide enough heat for regeneration events. Drivers should use the “Fast Idle” switch on the dash. If needed, they can refer to their original equipment manufacturer (OEM) operations manual to learn how to set up engine speeds for fast idle. When prolonged idling is required, they should make sure the rpm is adequate to heat the coolant above 140°F (60°C).
  • If needed, add a full on/off-type fan to aid in maintaining optimal operating temperatures.
  • Insulate exposed lines, filters, pumps and reservoirs.
  • Add a winter front for conditions below freezing.
  • If operating regularly in conditions under 32°F (0°C), pull air from within the engine compartment. Under -2°F (-19°C), pull intake air from a compartment around the exhaust stack to preheat the air.

Cummins Westport Natural Gas Engines

Cold-weather preparation/operation procedures for Cummins Westport natural gas engines are similar to those for diesel engines (block heater, coolant heater, battery warmer, radiator shutters or winter fronts, etc.). Compressed natural gas (CNG) filling stations should include a dryer to remove moisture from the natural gas.

Dry fuel is an important consideration for cold-weather operations. It is important to consider minimizing load on the engine at start by turning off power take-off (PTO) accessories such as hydraulic pumps, etc.

Natural gas fuel systems include a pressure regulator that is kept from freezing with a supply of warm engine coolant. In cold weather, allow the engine to warm to operating temperature before operating under load. Maintain intake air temperatures above freezing through the use of winter fronts and/or warm underhood air. The correct engine coolant, lubricating oil and fuels must be used for the cold weather range in which the engine is being operated:

Ambient Temperature 32°F to -25°F (0° to -32°C) – Use 50 percent ethylene glycol antifreeze and 50 percent water for the engine coolant mixture.

Ambient Temperature -25°F to -65°F (-32° to -54°C) – Use 60 percent ethylene glycol antifreeze and 40 percent water for the engine coolant mixture. Refer to Section V (Lubricating Oil Recommendations) of your owners manual for correct specifications.

For natural gas engines, the engine oil selected must meet Cummins CES 20074 or CES 20085. Specifications can be found in Cummins Oil and Oil Analysis Recommendation Service Bulletin 3810340.

Additional information on the operation of Cummins diesel engines in cold climates is available from Service Bulletin 3379009; information on natural gas engines is available from Service Bulletin 4332709. Service bulletins are available online at QuickServe® Online (QSOL) or through your local Cummins distributor.

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